Thesis

SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION TO PRODUCE ETHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER USING REACTIVE DISTILLATION

     Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is primarily used for the production of high octane number gasoline. It is produced by reaction of ethanol (ETOH) and tert-butanol (TBA)over an acidic catalyst where water is also produced as a by-product, using reactive distillation unit which can be considered as reaction and distillation combined into one unit operation.The present work concerned with studying the behavior of batch reactive packed distillation column to produce ETBE experimentally and theoretically.

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ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER USING TURBULENCE PROMOTERS

          Three cases of heat transfer enhancement by turbulence promoters were adopted in order to increase the thermal performance of a double pipe heat exchanger of 1245 mm effective length, 28 mm outer diameter and changeable  inner diameter (11 or 14 mm). Wire coils of 1 mm diameter and 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm coiling pitches were used as turbulence promoters to augment heart transfer inside the inner tube of heat exchanger at a Reynolds number range of 5000 to 40000 based on smooth tube diameter.

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STRUCTURE RHEOLOGY OF CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE (CMC) SOLUTIONS

Rheological study on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) dissolved in (6% NaOH in Water) solution was undertaken; Seven grades of carboxymethyl cellulose had been used.The Mw data were obtained by M-H equation using intrinsic viscosity data, where are obtained based on viscosity measurement.( 19,918, 45,700,76,693, 83,139, 148,800) gm/cm The values of Huggins coefficient (K3) have been obtained from plotting (ηredHvs conc.).

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STUDY OF INTRINSIC VISCOSITY AND FLOW ACTIVATION ENERGY OF SOME POLYMERS IN DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    The intrinsic viscosity and flow activation energy have been studied for several polymers which is used in some industrial applications, such as polyisobutylene of types Oppanol B150, 200,and 250 with different molecular weights of 2.5, 4.1 and 5.9 million g/mole, respectively, which dissolve in crude and gas oil.In addition three types of additives brought from Al-Dura refinery;olefin copolymer (OCP), {viscoples-4-677, viscoplex-215496, and Lubrizol R 7077} which dissolved in crude oil, and the polymers which is soluble in water such as polyacrylamide with

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EFFECT OF COMBINED ADDITIVES ON DEGRADATION RESISTANCE OF DILUTE POLYMER SOLUTIONS UNDER TURBULENT FLOW

           The experimental work was devoted to study the drag –reduction (DR) properties of various additive types, both in the single and binary mixed forms. Two polymer types, of high molecular weights 4 and 7 millions were used in the present investigation,namely, polyethylene oxide PEO as flexible synthetic polymer andAmylopectin as rigid polysaccharide from natural resources.Moreover, a certain type of natural Clay (Kaoline) and Aluminumsulfate (Alum) are included as suspended particles or in the colloidform.

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OPTIMUM SINGLE AND LAYERED PIPE INSULATION FOR A GIVEN HEAT LOAD UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

The present work is an attempt for gaining some standard and technical information to analyze the problem of heat loss from pipelines carrying hot streams. The analysis covers the use of a single cylindrical insulation or composite structure of different insulating materials. Applying the quasiNewton’s method in STATISTICA program,the thermal conductivity equation function of factors affecting insulation efficiency

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THE RELATION BETWEEN MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND FRICTION VELOCITY

 This work aims to study the effect of  the relationship between the mass transfer coefficient and friction/shear velocity by the analysis of experimental results using Rotating Cylinder Electrode (RCE) to evaluate the limiting current density (LCD) under turbulent flow conditions at three different temperatures 40,50,600C.

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SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENT INVESTIGATION FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL USING BATCH REACTIVE DISTILLATION

Environmental pollution has raised the concern on the search for the alternative energy sources. Biomass derived diesel fuel, termed biodiesel, can replace petroleum- based diesel fuels.

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STRUCTURE RHEOLOGY OF POLYETHYLENE OXIDE SOLUTION

Intrinsic viscosities, condition for the transition from particle to network solution (critical molecular weight), viscoelastic properties, and drag reduction have been studied for polyethylene oxide in water which is widely used in industrial applications.

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Determination of Mass Transfer Coefficient for Bubble Column (Air-Water System) Using Image Processing

This research suggests a simple system to study the hydrodynamics in a bubble column reactor and measuring gas-liquid specific interfacial area a, individual mass transfer coefficient k,gas holdup ε , flow regime, bubble size distribution, coalescence of bubbles, and bubble rising velocity for a single bubble by using image processing techniques.G Images and movies were taken by a digital camera and then analyzed in MATLABR2008a to extract the required data need to obtain the design parameters for bubble columns from special equations.

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